Preparation Tips

Preparation Tips

With your first draft in hand, read each sentence aloud, noting your speaking and breathing patterns. As you do so, indicate natural pauses and points of emphasis on the draft, using the symbols shown below.

Where you need to:

Use this symbol:

Retype this way:

Pause for breath.


End a sentence.

Emphasize a point.

Use a contraction to sound more natural.

Set off a list for easy reading.

Indicate each item on the list.

Delete a letter, word or phrase.




(Underline)  know

(Arc)  do not



(Two slashes)

(Loop)  out

End the typed line here. Indent the next line 2 spaces.

Begin the new sentence at the margin.

Type a line under the word(s).

Type a contraction of the two words. (For example, do not becomes don’t.)

Type the colon and end the line here.

Indent the line 5 spaces.

Omit when retyping.